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Archives:From Germanium to Silicon, A History of Change

2014-7-25 · Today, probably 95% of all semiconductors are fabricated in silicon, yet the first transistor was a germanium device. Until 1960 most design engineers preferred germanium to silicon for computer logic circuits, when, suddenly, germanium was out, and silicon was in.

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COMPLETE LISTING OF GERMANIUM TRANSISTORS

2020-4-19 · complete listing of germanium transistors silicon transistors and diodes industrial divisions bk-1300 second edition • all types • all brands • numerical listing • specs • late prices . key to symbols in manufacturers column adv advance research am amperex be bendix bo bogue cbs cbs-hytron ...

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Characterizing Germanium Junction Transistors

2021-11-12 · Germanium-based transistors are also characterized by smaller peak inverse voltage (PIV) than silicon devices, averaging 350Vand 1000V, respectively. In addition, the typical working temperature for germanium is only about 70 ofor germanium, being much larger (about 160 ) for silicon. Such issues contributed to the progressive shift

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contents

2019-7-17 · The most common type of junction transistor is the PNP diffused alloyed type. This transistor is made by taking a wafer of "N" type germanium, mounting it on a holder and pressing indium dots into each side. The assembly is then heated in a furnace until the indium melts and alloys with the germanium forming a "P" layer within the "N" type ...

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Early Power Transistor Evolution, Part 1, Germanium

2012-8-23 · Germanium was the first semiconducting material widely adopted for transistors, power and otherwise. One early power transistor I came across was the 2N174, shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: 2N174 Power Transistor. Following are some key

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Transistor Technology Volume II : F. J. Biondi - archive.org

2021-1-21 · Germanium and Silicon materials, principles of transistor design, radioactive and photoelectric p-n junction power sources and other information on transistor...

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Germanium transistors: logic circuits in the IBM 1401

2021-11-11 · The wafer-based mesa transistor was invented in 1958, followed by the modern planar transistor in 1959. Thus, transistors were undergoing radical changes in the 1950s and IBM introduced new logic families to take advantage of these new transistor types. Conclusion. Diode-transistor logic was a key part of IBM's early computers such as the IBM 1401.

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Replacing Germanium Transistors - Antique Radio Forums

2018-4-3 · Additionally, Germanium transistors usually didn't have as much gain as was needed/wanted, leading to circuit design decisions that would be considered really bad today. Germanium circuits are often overly sensitive to Hfe/beta by modern standards. If you are going to mess around with Germanium, build a test fixture like this one.

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Mark Ollig Column - 10/29/21 - herald-journal

2021-10-29 · Thus, their invention was the first solid-state transistor using three electrical leads known as the emitter, the collector, and the base. As a result, the transistor could amplify and control the electrical signals going through it. Bardeen, Brattain, and physicist William Shockley completed the invention of the transistor Dec. 23, 1947.

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germanium中文(简体)翻译:剑桥词典

germanium翻译:锗(一种有不寻常的电子特征的元素,用于半导体)。了解更多。 This is made feasible largely, of course, by the new germanium rectifier, which is one of the important developments recently introduced, showing how much science and engineering co-operate together.

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Germanium transistors: logic circuits in the IBM 1401

2021-11-11 · The wafer-based mesa transistor was invented in 1958, followed by the modern planar transistor in 1959. Thus, transistors were undergoing radical changes in the 1950s and IBM introduced new logic families to take advantage of these new transistor types. Conclusion. Diode-transistor logic was a key part of IBM's early computers such as the IBM 1401.

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The Invention of the Transistor | SpringerLink

Abstract. Arguably the most important invention of the past century, the transistor is often cited as the exemplar of how scientific research can lead to useful commercial products. Emerging in 1947 from a Bell Telephone Laboratories program of basic research on

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Characterizing Germanium Junction Transistors

2021-11-12 · Germanium-based transistors are also characterized by smaller peak inverse voltage (PIV) than silicon devices, averaging 350Vand 1000V, respectively. In addition, the typical working temperature for germanium is only about 70 ofor germanium, being much larger (about 160 ) for silicon. Such issues contributed to the progressive shift

Read More
What was the first transistor radio? – Hamilton County ...

2021-10-17 · Selling at $50, the radio was expensive for its time but caught on quickly because of its small “pocket size.” Containing four germanium transistors, the little radio operated on a 22.5-volt battery which offered 20 hours of listening. The first models came in

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Germanium Archives - Tone Gems

2011-12-23 · The old Germanium transistors sound a little “looser” than the newer Silicon versions, which make them perfect for these low wattage amps. However, Germanium never could handle the heat and raw power of higher watt amps. But Germanium still

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Archives:From Germanium to Silicon, A History of Change

2014-7-25 · Today, probably 95% of all semiconductors are fabricated in silicon, yet the first transistor was a germanium device. Until 1960 most design engineers preferred germanium to silicon for computer logic circuits, when, suddenly, germanium was out, and silicon was in.

Read More
ElectroSmash - You can Build the Perfect Germanium Fuzz

2021-11-22 · Germanium Transistor Selection - Biasing the Fuzz Face: It is crucial to select the right transistors in order to archive the best sounding box. Germanium transistors tend to have high leakage current and an inconsistent gain value (Hfe). After years of experimentation and listening, it is agreed that the best match uses a low gain in the first ...

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Silicon-Germanium Chip Sets New Speed Record, Breaking ...

2014-2-20 · A research collaboration has demonstrated the world’s fastest silicon-based device to date. The investigators from IHP-Innovations for High Performance Microelectronics in Germany and the Georgia Institute of Technology operated a silicon-germanium (SiGe) transistor at 798 gigahertz (GHz) fMAX, exceeding the previous speed record for silicon-germanium chips by about 200 GHz. Although

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Germanium Can Take Transistors Where Silicon Can’t -

2016-11-29 · Germanium Returns: Germanium was an early transistor material. Now its charge-carrying abilities and advanced fabrication technology make it an attractive material for future chips.

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The Bell System Technical Journal (1922-1983) - Archive

The scientific discoveries and technological innovations produced by Bell System research and engineering were critical not only to the evolution of global telecommunications but, more widely, they had a considerable impact on the technological base of the global economy and, indeed, on our daily...

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The Irresistible Transistor - IEEE Spectrum

2003-3-3 · The germanium point-contact transistor—actually two pointed wires, 125 µm in diameter and 25-50 µm apart, in contact with the signal-amplifying semiconductor—had to be handmade with ...

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Germanium Archives Semiconductor Engineering

2020-1-23 · tag: Germanium. 5/3nm Wars Begin. ... but now customers must decide whether to design their next chips around the current transistor type or move to a different one at 3nm and beyond. The decision involves the move to extend today’s finFETs to 3nm, or to implement a new technology called gate-all-around FETs (GAA FETs) at 3nm or 2nm. ...

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Transistor Technology Volume II : F. J. Biondi - archive.org

2021-1-21 · Germanium and Silicon materials, principles of transistor design, radioactive and photoelectric p-n junction power sources and other information on transistor...

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AMZ-FX Guitar Effects Blog » Blog Archive Inside Ge ...

The inside of germanium transistors can be interesting due to the differences in how they may be constructed. The Ge transistor pictured above is a common design that has a metal plate welded to one of the legs of the transistor. There is a hole in the metal

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Germanium Transistolators | QRZ Forums

2017-6-4 · G4COE, Jun 3, 2017. #8. K6GB XML Subscriber QRZ Page. Remember the old VW radios used a single germanium transistor and you could buy the single for $3 or the 5-pack for $1.99 and have 4 spares for the glove compartment! K6GB, Jun 3, 2017.

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Sub-5 nm monolayer germanium selenide (GeSe)

Two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorene (BP) field-effect transistors (FETs) show excellent device performance but suffer from serious instability under ambient conditions. Isoelectronic 2D germanium selenide (GeSe) shares many similar properties with 2D BP, such as

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AMZ-FX Guitar Effects Blog » Blog Archive Leaky Transistor ...

2007-9-10 · The base-emitter junction will have a forward voltage drop of about 0.25v and can be used as a clipper in a fuzz circuit. Also, even though the transistor may have too much b-e current leakage for use in many circuits, it can still probably be used as a

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Replacing Germanium Transistors - Antique Radio Forums

2018-4-3 · Additionally, Germanium transistors usually didn't have as much gain as was needed/wanted, leading to circuit design decisions that would be considered really bad today. Germanium circuits are often overly sensitive to Hfe/beta by modern standards. If you are going to mess around with Germanium, build a test fixture like this one.

Read More